Xiao Wang: Authenticated Garbling: Efficient Maliciously Secure Two-Party Computation and Global-Scale Secure Multiparty Computation

Friday, January 26, 2018 - 10:30am to 12:00pm
Hewlett G882
Xiao Wang, University of Maryland, College Park
Abstract:  This talk consists of two papers:
== Authenticated Garbling and Efficient Maliciously Secure Two-Party Computation ==
We propose a simple and efficient framework for obtaining efficient constant-round protocols for maliciously secure two-party computation. Our framework uses a function-independent preprocessing phase to generate authenticated information for the two parties; this information is then used to construct a single ``authenticated'' garbled circuit which is transmitted and evaluated.
We also show how to efficiently instantiate the preprocessing phase by designing a highly optimized version of the TinyOT protocol by Nielsen et al. Our overall protocol outperforms existing work in both the single-execution and amortized settings, with or without preprocessing:
- In the single-execution setting, our protocol evaluates an AES circuit with malicious security in 37 ms with an online time of just 1 ms. Previous work with the best online time (also 1 ms) requires 124 ms in total; previous work with the best total time requires 62 ms (with 14 ms online time).
- If we amortize the computation over 1024 executions, each AES computation requires just 6.7 ms with roughly the same online time as above. The best previous work in the amortized setting has roughly the same total time but does not support function-independent preprocessing.
Our work shows that the performance penalty for maliciously secure two-party computation (as compared to semi-honest security) is much smaller than previously believed.
== Global-Scale Secure Multiparty Computation ==
We propose a new, constant-round protocol for multi-party computation of boolean circuits that is secure against an arbitrary number of malicious corruptions. At a high level, we extend and generalize recent work of Wang et al. in the two-party setting and design an efficient preprocessing phase that allows the parties to generate authenticated information; we then show how to use this information to distributively construct a single ``authenticated'' garbled circuit that is evaluated by one party.
Our resulting protocol improves upon the state-of-the-art both asymptotically and concretely. We validate these claims via several experiments demonstrating both the efficiency and scalability of our protocol:
- Efficiency: For three-party computation over a LAN, our protocol requires only 95 ms to evaluate AES. This is roughly a 700× improvement over the best prior work, and only 2.5× slower than the best known result in the two-party setting. In general, for n parties our protocol improves upon prior work (which was never implemented) by a factor of more than 230n, e.g., an improvement of 3 orders of magnitude for 5-party computation.
- Scalability: We successfully executed our protocol with a large number of parties located all over the world, computing (for example) AES with 128 parties across 5 continents in under 3 minutes. Our work represents the largest-scale demonstration of secure computation to date.